We see and hear as many as 5,000 marketing and advertisement messages a day. From what we read in magazines to what we hear on the radio, we are bombarded with advertisements. But how many of those do you think we pay attention to? Probably very few. We’re so overwhelmed with marketing messages we tune most of them out.
How Personas Get Your Message Heard
Unfortunately, the large majority of your marketing messages get tuned out too.
To cut through this message clutter and reach your prospective customers, you need to create marketing personas. “Personas” may sound odd if you’ve never heard about them, but they’re easy and fun to create.
A persona is a thorough and detailed description of your ideal buyer or customer. Personas tell the story of your customers’ behaviors, needs, and concerns. They help you understand your prospects better so you can speak to them clearly and directly in your advertising messages.
While creating personas might seem like an unnecessary step, the work is invaluable. Without them, your marketing messages will be less effective at cutting through the clutter, and less effective means fewer new members at a higher cost to acquire them.
So now that you know why you need personas, you’re probably starting to wonder how to create them. Well, just read on.
Steps For Creating Personas
Your goal is to thoroughly understand your prospective customers. To do this, you need to do some research. You can conduct interviews with your customers, send surveys to your community, or talk to people in your network.
Go into the research process methodically and with an open mind. It’s easy to think you know your people, but you’ll be a bit surprised with what else you can learn. You should also start with a set of basic questions or a template for what you want to find out. But be sure to ask open-ended questions to generate conversations.
Here are some common things you’ll want to find out:
Personal details like age, gender, goals, motivation, challenges, education, spouses/children
Professional or career background, skills needed for their work, approximate household income (if willing to share)
Where and how they like to find information (ex: social media, books, magazines, the news, etc.)
Where and how they like to shop, and where they buy nutrition items and supplements
Things specific to your business (ex: what programs they like, how far would they drive to get to you, ideal hours of operation, etc.)
Why (and how) they were attracted to your business.
Identify the Traits of Your Ideal Customer
Now you’ll need to take the information you collected and start to make sense of it. You’ll want to look for patterns and common characteristics to tell the story, or stories, of your prospects and members.
For instance, do you have a customer base that’s mostly female and professionally-minded? Or is your community young men who are family-focused? Try to find the commonalities in the stories you’ve collected. It’s normal to have a couple of different stories emerge, and you can have as many personas as you need to account for the generalities in your community.
Document Your Persona(s)
Here’s where you can be creative. There’s no right way to document your personas. You can use poster board, PowerPoint, a whiteboard, or any other medium that captures the nuances of your personas. Some people like to name their personas so they are easy to remember, and assigning an image to your persona is also helpful. You will want to keep and use your personas for the foreseeable future, so be sure they will be savable.
After you’ve created your personas, share them with your team. Ask for their feedback on what you’ve created. Your team will have ideas to help you refine your personas.
Using Your Personas to Reach Prospects
Now it’s time to be heard above all the marketing noise, or cut through it with a well-sharpened knife, if you will. You can use your personas to create targeted advertisements and marketing messages, using words and ideas that will resonate with your ideal prospect. For instance, let’s use the examples we gave above.
An advertisement for working professional females building their career will differ significantly from an advertisement for ex-corporate, entrepreneurial males. Not only will the words you’d want to use be different, but the colors, images, and the main point of your message will be as well. Your personas will also give you insight for promotions and seasonal attendance drivers, as well as clarity on where to post your advertisements.
Another thing that makes personas helpful is the ability to address a person’s reasons for wanting your product, or conversely, not wanting your product. If you speak to these issues in your marketing messages, they will be compelling and powerful.
Personas Are a Powerful (And Necessary) Tool
Personas must be a part of your marketing strategy, and they’re essential for building a strong brand. They will make your marketing messages targeted, specific, and effective for your intended audience. Although they take a little time to create, they are invaluable and will help you grow your business.
The post was originally published on Causely, where I was co-founder and CMO.
I was standing there at my desk when a Slack message popped up: “Check out this Duracell hearing aid commercial…” with an innocuous link to a YouTube video. 78 seconds later I was desperately trying to pretend I had allergies as I fought to keep tears from welling up.
If I said that the Facebook ad platform is the most powerful ad network in the world, it might sound a little crazy. It also happens to be true. Do you know why?
It’s because the Facebook ad platform is actually an experimental software-only version of Skynet’s artificially intelligent autonomous war machines, also known as Terminators. Here are the six pieces of evidence that prove it :).
Understanding Facebook campaign objectives is a bit like buying a vehicle: you know that they all basically do the same thing, but picking the wrong one can lead to misery and frustration.
Unfortunately, Facebook doesn’t do much to illustrate the differences between each of objective. Here’s an example. The help text for the “Increase engagement in your app” objective reads, “Use the app engagement objective to increase engagement in your app.” Wow.
To make picking the right Facebook campaign objectives easier (and far more entertaining), I’ve matched each Facebook advertising objective with its vehicle counterpart. If only buying a real car were this simple.
When I was a kid, there was a sure-fire way of getting Super Mario Bros. to work on NES when the game wouldn’t load: take out the cartridge, blow into the end with all the electronic bits, and retry. Nine times out of ten you’d be back in business. Unfortunately, Facebook ads are often just as finicky. Except that blowing on your computer screen won’t get you very far. That’s why I wrote this guide: togive you a 14-step guide to fix things when your Facebook ads not working. After all, if you’re dependent on Facebook for growth, nothing with destroy your marketing strategy faster than ineffective campaigns.
Tip #1: Double Check Everything
Remember when you called your Internet provider because you couldn’t get House of Cards to play on Netflix? And they told you to first check if your cable modem was plugged in? This is that step. Except it’s more like piloting the Apollo space capsule: there are a thousand switches to check, and if you bump the wrong one, bad things happen.
If you’ve made any of the mistakes below, you’ll soon see your Facebook ads not working:
Used the wrong URL for your ad’s target destination
Forgot to add your Facebook tracking pixel to your landing pages
Didn’t set the right objective for Facebook to optimize on
Left a campaign, ad set, or ad set to “OFF“
Sent traffic to a landing page you haven’t published
Used an expired credit card to pay for your ads
Hit a budget limit on our account or a campaign
Pre-pay for a full tank of gas at $5.63/gallon when renting your Kia Forte from Hertz
Check these first before diving into the more difficult fixes below.
If you’re unsure of what objective to pick, Clicks To Website is probably your safest best. When you’ve got the basics figured out, consider moving to Website Conversions. This will allow Facebook to send traffic to people it thinks are most likely to take a certain action on your site. Like downloading your latest ebook, The Beginner’s Guide To McDonald’s Extra Value Meals: What To Choose, How To Eat, And Best Places To Get Sick After Consumption.
One word of caution when using Website Conversions…
If you aren’t getting at least five conversions a day, Facebook will consider your campaign unsuccessful. Facebook will then stop running your campaign “to keep you from wasting money.” You won’t find this listed anywhere in Facebook’s help articles, but I can confirm this both from personal experience and conversations with Facebook support.
Tip #3: Check Placement (Don’t Use Audience Network)
Facebook offers four ad placements: Desktop News Feed, Mobile News Feed, Desktop Right Hand, and Audience Network (aka the 5th Circle of Hell).
What is this Audience Network? It’s a smorgasbord of ad placements on external sites and within mobile apps. It also includes ads placed within Facebook’s Instant Articles.
The problem with Facebook Audience Network ads is they offer a very poor user experience since the ad layouts vary greatly. You also are subject to the “fat finger” problem, where users inadvertently click on an ad when navigating on their phone.
You’d think that Facebook would simply show your ads on the best-performing placements, but that isn’t always the case. In fact, when I wasn’t paying attention, I’ve seen Facebook spend nearly all of my budget on Audience Network.
So to be safe, turn off Audience Network placements. Completely.
Outside of Audience Network, your mileage may vary among the other placements. If you see one that’s under-performing, take a look at how your ads are presented. Maybe your creative doesn’t work well in small sizes. Maybe your headlines are too long for mobile. Whatever the case, either turn off an under-performing placement or revise your copy and creative to make sure it presents well in all formats.
Tip #4: Get The Right Audience
The best ad in the world won’t convert if it’s delivered to the wrong audience. And you’d be surprised at how very similar Facebook audiences can perform quite differently.
Try testing different versions of your target audience if you find your Facebook ads not working, and see which works best. Here’s an example of how to create three different audiences:
Build your first audience using Facebook Likes and Interests. Try to find things that only people in your audience would have an interest in.
Create a based on Facebook’s Behaviors options. Dig deep into the choices Facebook offers. You’ll be surprised at what you find.
Finally, try a “Lookalike” audience of your existing customers or leads.
Next, take a look at the audience size relative to your budget if you find you Facebook ads not working. You may have created the “perfect” audience. But if it’s made up of only 35,000 people and your budget is $500/day, you’ll wear out that audience in just a few days.
Tip #5: Check Your Relevance Score
Creating a good user experience is a big focus for Facebook. That means they don’t want ads that are spammy, annoying, or well, irrelevant.
That’s why you need to pay close attention to Facebook’s Relevance Score. A high relevance score of say, and 8 or 9, means you’re doing it right. A low score means your audience and your message are never, ever getting past a first date. 5 or 6 is about middle ground.
Remember that Facebook Relevance Scores can change over time. If you’ve found a winner – great! Just keep an eye on it – if relevance declines, it may be time to shut things off and move on to a new ad.
Tip #6: Don’t Compete Against Yourself
Seriously, this is a thing you can actually do with Facebook ads.
It happens when you have more than one campaign targeting the same audience. When that occurs, Facebook gets… well, confused. And when Facebook gets confused, it will either stop delivering your ads or it will charge you more than it should. Either scenario is bad.
Thankfully, Facebook has a Compare Audience Overlap feature. Just select two or more audiences and you can see how distinct they are. As a rule of thumb, anything with more than a 50% overlap is probably going to cause you problems. If the overlap is between 25-50%, you’re still probably OK, as long as the audience size is large enough.
Tip #7: Be Patient
Here’s the real challenge when you see your Facebook ads not working: your fixes don’t work right away. Here’s an example:
I recently set up a campaign for website conversions. I was willing to pay up to $20 per conversion, a number I’d consistently hit before.
But did my first conversion magically come through once I had spent $20? Nope. How about $50? $75? Keep going. The first conversion didn’t happen until I had spent nearly $100. But a short while later, I got my second, bringing the average cost per conversion down to about $80. A third brought the average down again, to about $60. And so on.
Once I gave Facebook some time to optimize, everything fell in order, and I got plenty conversions well under my target. #epicwin
The lesson: don’t make changes until you’ve given Facebook plenty of time to optimize.
Tip #8: Evaluate Your Landing Pages
If you find your Facebook ads not working, you can just look at the ad itself; you have to look at the entire user experience. Sometimes your ads are just fine, but your landing pages are sucking you dry. How do you know? If you answer “No“ to any questions below, you still need to work on your ads. All “Yes” responses and you can safely move on to your landing pages:
Is your Cost Per Click (Link) healthy? Don’t get confused by regular ol’ Cost Per Click, as that includes any click on your ad, not just those that go to your landing page.
Is your Click-Through Rate (Link) above 0.5%? That’s just rough target, but if you’re seeing numbers below this, you probably need to make some changes to your ads or your audience.
Is Frequency below 5?Frequency is the number of times people have seen your ad. If your audience has seen your ad at least five times already and they still haven’t responded, they’re not about to start now.
Is your Relevance Score a 5 or above? Anything less and Facebook thinks that your ads are not very pertinent to your audience.
Do you have enough data? Don’t assume things aren’t working if you only have a few clicks or a few hundred impressions.
If you don’t know what’s important to your audience, good luck getting them to click anything. Here’s the good news: if you aren’t sure which of your product’s benefits will resonate, you can test. Here’s how:
With this vivid picture of Greg in mind, identify 5-6 benefits your product can provide that will help him. Does he want to save money? Sleep better? Collect every Star Wars action figure ever produced?
Create an ad for each benefit, using unique copy and creative.
Test all of these ads together – the winner should tell you what benefit resonates best with Greg.
To optimize further, continue making new variations centered around that winning benefit.
Tip #10: Say Exactly What You Want To Communicate
Copy is one of those things that everyone can write, but few can write well. Your word choice can make a tremendous difference in how people respond to your ad. Here are three questions to evaluate the quality of your copy:
Is it clear? Choose clarity over cleverness, and being succinct over verbose.
Are you triggering the right emotions? Whether you want the reader to feel curious, excited, anxious, or whatever else, pick words that match that emotion.
Does the reader know what to expect next? Make sure your copy clearly states what the reader should do (click, download, etc). and what she can expect once she takes that action.
Did you just stay up all night making 67 variations of your ads to test? Hold on there, hombre. Running all those ads at once won’t help you when you notice your Facebook ads not working.
Like a nervous first-year high school basketball coach picking his starting lineup from players he knows nothing about, Facebook can’t optimize your ads until it knows which of them are the best performers.
And if you have too many ads, it will take Facebook a long time to figure that out. Or worse, Facebook will pick a “winner” before it’s given all your ads a fair shot, leaving a potentially great ad stuck in the dust bin.
You run into a different, but equally bad, problem with too few ads.
Let’s say that for every 100 ads you create, 30 are solid, and 70 are duds. Nothing wrong with that. But if you only test a few ads, you’re not giving yourself a good chance of finding a solid performer.
To avoid both problems, shoot for 5-6 ads within each ad set.
Tip #12: Get (The Right) Creative
Developing the right creative is often the scariest part for many marketers. It’s the part where we have to rely on an actual artist to develop art, something most of us can only pretend to know much about. That, or rely on some crummy stock photography. Not even your mom would be proud of you then.
Here’s the good news: developing creative isn’t that much different from developing copy. Identify who you’re targeting, the message you’re trying to convey, and any emotions you want to trigger. Share these with your designer. Ask him to copy up a few concepts to see if you’re both speaking the same language. If one of those looks good, create 3-5 final variations that you can test.
Don’t have a designer on hand or the budget for a freelancer? Try a free tool like Canva or use a service like Fiverr to hire one for a little as five dollars. Exchange rates are your friend when there are skilled Photoshop ninjas in Romania. Just make sure you specify exactly what you want to have designed.
Tip #13: Try Rebooting
Sometimes Facebook just needs a good kick in the pants. With a steel-toed boot. If you’ve made a bunch of changes to your campaign and nothing seems to be working, then clone your campaign, burn the old one to the ground, and start over.
If this sounds stupid, it’s because it is. Rebooting your campaigns should not be a viable solution to getting your ads to perform, but it is. It’s as though Facebook’s ad delivery algorithm sometimes turns into a bipolar robot who huffs glue when you’re not looking. Once brain damage sets in, there’s no turning back. The only way to fix things is to toss your campaign in the incinerator and begin anew.
I hate trying this technique when I see my Facebook ads not working because it’s so blunt and unscientific, but sometimes it’s exactly what needs to be done.
Tip #14: Be Human
This is the least concrete but most important concept. Ads that are pushy, gimmicky, or disrespectful won’t get results. Even if they do, do you really want to be that type of marketer?
If you aren’t sure how your ads will be perceived, show them to a friend, your mom, your boyfriend… anyone who’s a reasonable human being. Ask them how the ads make them feel. For bonus points: tell your friend that the ads were created by someone else. You’ll get much more objective feedback.
If your ads consistently get negative feedback from others, keep working at it. No one got great overnight!
Facebook Ads Not Working? All You Really Need To Know Are These 5 Points
Hopefully, the points above give you some new ways of solving things if you find your Facebook ads not working. But if it all seems like too much, remember that there are only five things you need to be successful with Facebook ads:
Understand the mechanics of the ad platform
Offer something of value
Respect the user
Have the persistence to keep going until you get things right
Oh, and read this article when you need a reminder.
Have other advice for fixing things when you discover your Facebook ads not working? Share what you’ve learned in the comments!
This post was originally published on Flag and Frontier, my marketing consulting business for B2B technology companies.